The Therapsids

The End Permian
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Further Reading about Therapsids

Websites and Online Articles

There are a few excellent websites which feature therapsids as a part of their content. The following are highly recommended.

Palaeos  has, without a doubt, the best online coverage of
the therapsids. Palaeos combines content from Alan Kazlev's
Gaia site and Toby White's amazing Vertebrate Notes site.

When Life Nearly Came to an End: The Permian Extinction , National Geographic's Big Picture view of the 'Big One'.

Books and Magazine Articles

Permian - Birth of a New World, Michael Wachtler and Thomas Perner, 2015, Dolomythos Museum, Innichen, Italy, 208 pages, ISBN 8890881534, 9788890881534 (Michael Wachtler website)
Online sample (98 pages ... alas, not including any therapsids.)

The Origin & Evolution of Mammals, TS Kemp, 2005, Oxford University Press, 344 pages, ISBN 13 9780198507611,
or online at: ISSUU magazine format  or  Scribd (as a pdf)

The Dicynodonts: A Study in Palaeobiology, 1990, Gillian King, Chapman and Hall, London, 233 pages, ISBN 0 412 33080

Life and death in the Permo-Triassic: the fortunes of dicynodont mammal-like reptiles, Gillian King, 1990, South African Museum, Cape Town, 17 pages, ISBN 0868131105

Fossil Reptiles of the South African Karoo, MA Cluver, 1978, South African Museum, 54 pages, ISBN-13 978-0908407583
(Sadly, no longer available as a pdf download from U Mass.)

Selected Therapsid Links

Academic Institutions and Museum Exhibits

The Bernard Price Institute's Fossil Gallery is a must see!

In the past, Prof Robert Reisz at the University of Toronto has made public his lab notes on his 'Major Features of Vertebrate Evolution' (BIO 356) course. Unfortunately, a student log-in is now required at UofT Mississauga to get at this course material.

Unfortunately, the National Museum, Bloemfontein Exhibition of South African Prehistoric Animals, with Marvin Carsten's robotic life-restorations of therapsids is no longer available.

Likewise, The Great Russian Dinosaur Exposition – a great travelling roadshow with lots of information about the Russian therapsids and other Late Permian critters is no more.  A pity...

Online Artwork

Dynasties of Stone  showcases the masterful artwork of  Kelly Taylor (click on Portfolio, then on The Past). Thumbnails of 'Paleozoic Beasts' including therapsids are part of a slideshow. (Also see Kelly Taylor's Work in Progress section.)

Doug Henderson's wonderful Paleozoic Era  is another must see. No one puts animals in their environment like Henderson.

Paleobotany for Beginners

While there are some great paleobotany academic resources online, there is little for the novice.

Palaeozoic Forests by Prof Dr Hans Kerp is a great overview.

The End Permian
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Comments or Questions?
Contact  Stephen Priestley:  priest0049 [at]

Introduction to
The Therapsids